Alloy steel is a type of steel which contains different elements like nickel, silicon, copper and manganese. Elements like nickel, copper, cobalt and copper help to increase the temperature range between which austenite exists. Minor metals such as titanium and zirconium create carbides that increase the strength and hardness of steel. Silicon, molybdenum and aluminum extracts can decrease the effect of solubility of carbon. Cobalt, nickel and silicon can reduce the carbide stability of steel. This causes breakdown and creation of new graphite.
Chromium, aluminum and silicon create a protective oxide layer on the surface. It protects the metal from deteriorating in harsh environments. Silicon, tungsten, nickel and molybdenum are effective in reducing the eutectoid concentration of carbon. Vanadium increases strength and also maintains ductility. It helps in promoting a fine grain structure.
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